Costs per Unit and EBITDA Margin

The actual costs incurred by Vonovia for the management of its properties are shown in the costs of the Rental segment, excluding costs and including the earnings contribution made by the service business, which is directly linked to the properties. As a result, we have grouped the operating expenses of the Rental segment, the of the Value-add Business segment and the adjusted EBITDA Other to show the Group-wide property management costs. In terms of the average number of residential units, these costs came to € 526 per unit in 2017, 7.7% below the previous year’s value of € 570.

The EBITDA margin of the core business, calculated based on the in relation to within the Group, once again showed positive development in the reporting period. It rose from 70.9% to 73.2%.

Maintenance
Maintenance covers the measures that are necessary to ensure that the property can continue to be used as intended over its useful life and that eliminate structural and other defects caused by wear and tear, age and weathering effects.
Adjusted EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization)
Adjusted EBITDA is the result before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (including income from other operational investments) adjusted for effects that do not relate to the period, recur irregularly or that are atypical for business operation, and for net income from fair value adjustments to investment properties. These non-recurring items include the development of new fields of business and business processes, acquisition projects, expenses for refinancing and equity increases (where not treated as capital procurement costs), IPO preparation costs and expenses for pre-retirement part-time work arrangements and severance payments.
Adjusted EBITDA Operations
The adjusted EBITDA Operations is calculated by subtracting the adjusted EBITDA Sales from the adjusted EBITDA of the Group.
Rental Income
Rental income refers to the current gross income for rented units as agreed in the corresponding rent agreements before the deduction of non-transferable ancillary costs.